Retinography is a sophisticated means for identifying people by the pattern of blood vessels on the retina (the innermost coat of the back part of the eye). It requires the use of a special scanner about the size of a shoe-box that can map the unique pattern of blood vessels on the retina. The pattern is so complex that even identical twins do not have the same blood vessel configuration. Those who favor its use claim retinography has an error rate of only one in a million.

There are currently a number of biometric devices in use, machines that can identify people by their physical characteristics. Some examples include fingerprint scanners and devices that can recognize a particular voice, hand, or signature. The retinal scanner is another addition to the identification tool kit.

How Retinal Scanning Works

A retinal scanner uses infrared light for mapping. As a person looks into the eyepiece, an invisible beam of low-energy infrared light traces a circular path on the retina at the back of the eye. The blood-filled capillaries absorb more of the infrared light than the surrounding tissue. Because of this, there is a variation in the intensity of the reflection. The scanner measures this reflection at 320 points along the beam path. It then assigns an intensity grade between zero and 4,095. The resulting numbers are compressed into an 80-byte computer code. This code can then be compared with patterns that have already been entered into the computer's data base.


Retina scans are already in use in the Pentagon and government and corporate organizations where people need to be identified before they can enter an area. New concerns about security from terrorism and bank and credit card fraud have caused many organizations to think seriously of using retina scans or other biometric means to identify people at airports and ATM machines.

Some states require that truck and bus drivers be mapped by retinography. This information is used by state agencies to prevent bad drivers from holding licenses in several states to hide their driving records. A proposed—and more controversial—use of retina scans is to develop a worker registry, where everyone is scanned to make sure that they are legal citizens of the United States, and thus eligible for employment. Critics of this proposal are concerned about possible invasions of privacy and violations of other personal rights.

Advantages and Disadvantages

Retinal scanners have several advantages over fingerprinting and voice recognition systems. They do not require as much computer memory as a fingerprint scan, and they are not subject to contamination from dirt or finger misplacement. Unlike voice recognition systems, retinal scanner are not distracted by background noise or changes in voice caused by illness.

The main disadvantage of the retinal scanner is that the person has to focus on the scanner from about three inches away. This restriction makes the device difficult for ATM use because a person using a cash machine rarely focuses on one area very long and is never close enough. A new device called an iris scanner may prove more useful for these casual transactions, since the scanning camera can be farther away and only has to scan the pattern of the iris (colored portion) of the eye, a procedure which does not require focusing on the camera.

User Contributions:

Report this comment as inappropriate
Feb 1, 2007 @ 3:15 pm
This is a very, very good page and it has helped me a lot on my researches.
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jun 26, 2007 @ 11:11 am
This is a very informative page and has definitely helped in sparking and interest in me to pursue a project on biometric identification.
Report this comment as inappropriate
Dec 19, 2007 @ 11:11 am
this page helped me very much about my seminar paper.i am thankful to organization of this site
Robin K K
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jan 8, 2008 @ 3:15 pm
Thanks a lot. This page helped me a lot with my research. Very useful.
Alpesh Prajapati
Report this comment as inappropriate
May 23, 2008 @ 8:08 am
Thanx Man. Thanx a Lot.. This Literature helped me a lot.
ruth Cherot
Report this comment as inappropriate
Oct 7, 2008 @ 4:16 pm
this was very helpful to put biometrics into perspective. thanks
Report this comment as inappropriate
Sep 2, 2009 @ 1:13 pm
This was exactly what I needed for my genetics presentation. Thank you for making it easy to understand, yet specific.
Ben Jesty
Report this comment as inappropriate
Sep 18, 2009 @ 11:11 am
Brilliant, this is exactly what I was looking for for my research! :)
Report this comment as inappropriate
Oct 7, 2009 @ 6:06 am
here it is described that ratina scanner generates number that is converted into a 80byte computer code.can someone tell me what is the data type of this 80byte code?????please mail me soon.......
Report this comment as inappropriate
Mar 14, 2010 @ 10:22 pm
This was helpful because I learned the difference between a retina scan and an iris scan.
Report this comment as inappropriate
May 29, 2010 @ 12:12 pm
Thanks very much it helped me in my school assignment research.
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jul 25, 2010 @ 7:19 pm
Excellent article. !
But i had a question.-Can we use the retina scanning on blind peoples.?
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jul 30, 2010 @ 1:13 pm
amazing its very helpful to me it will fulfill my requirements
Report this comment as inappropriate
Sep 25, 2010 @ 5:17 pm
This is great information, however in my class it was asked if these retinal scanners cause damage to the eye in short or long term?
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jan 21, 2012 @ 12:12 pm
This site gave a great information for my research paper. Thanks,
Ravi Ranjan
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jan 18, 2013 @ 8:08 am
Can I get some information about the algorithms which are used in Retinal scan?
Report this comment as inappropriate
Mar 1, 2013 @ 12:00 am
thanks alot i think this article will hlp m as i go on with ma project on retinal recognition
Jnr Brown
Report this comment as inappropriate
Feb 6, 2014 @ 2:02 am
this article is very useful would you mind writting more stuff about these latest trends in technology
Report this comment as inappropriate
Sep 25, 2014 @ 6:18 pm
This article gives you all you are looking for. No back an forth straight to the point. Understandable an effective.. great. Thanks to my friend hugh who recommended it to me.
Report this comment as inappropriate
Feb 13, 2018 @ 5:05 am
Does anyone have any research on the impact/damage on the eyes of frequent IRIS scanning?

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:


Retinography forum