Artificial heart valve



Heart valves are flaps of tissue within the heart. They open and close to allow blood to flow into the correct cardiac areas in the right direction. Blood is supposed to flow from one of the heart's four chambers to the next. Closing a valve prevents any blood from leaking back. When one of the heart's four valves becomes too diseased or damaged to function properly, blood does not reach the proper area in the right volume. The only effective treatment is valve replacement. Valve replacement was not possible until the advent of open-heart surgery in the 1950s. Researchers set out to design a valve that could be easily implanted, have a low rejection rate, would not promote clot formation, and enjoy long-term durability.

American surgeon Charles A. Hufuagel (1916-) inserted a tube-and-float device into a patient's descending aorta in 1952 to prevent aortic backflow. In 1960 Dwight Harken implanted an artificial cardiac aortic valve into a patient. Nina Braunwald replaced a mitral valve with an artificial one shortly after that.

The first completely successful artificial heart valve was designed and implanted in a human patient by surgeons Albert Starr (1926-) and M. L. Edwards in Portland, Oregon in 1961. Their device, the Starr-Edwards valve, is now a standard in the field. The valve is made of a combination of materials and includes a hollow metal ball, an alloy (metal composite) cage, and a Teflon base. Heart valve designers and manufacturers later took advantage of new technologies developed for the space program and included materials like Pyrolite carbon, a strong and durable new substance, in artificial heart valve designs.

There is always the danger of blood clot formation after a valve is implanted. Because of this, patients are required take anticoagulation medication for life. An alternative is to use a porcine (pig) aortic valve, which carries a much lower risk of clot formation. Using this valve does

An electron micrograph of a human aortic valve.
An electron micrograph of a human aortic valve.
not require anticoagulation medication, but porcine valves do not last as long as mechanical heart valves.

[See also Artificial heart ]



User Contributions:

Report this comment as inappropriate
May 4, 2011 @ 11:23 pm
My grandmother, Hellen Diane Champion, received the Starr-Edwards valve in Aug. of 1969. To my knowledge she was the longest surviving patient of Dr. Starr (38 years). She passed away in 2007 from causes unrelated to the valve. If not for Dr. Starr and Dr. Edwards I would never have known my grandmother. I was one month old at the time of the surgery. I remember asking grandma, "Did you swallow a clock?" She ticked from the sound of the ball clicking against the cage within the valve. This memory is so vivid in my mind, and I am eternally grateful to both of these miracle working doctors!
Ken Allen-David
Motivational Speaker
Author "Revive Your Drive" (Dedicated to Hellen Diane Champion)
Ali
Report this comment as inappropriate
Sep 13, 2011 @ 5:05 am
Is there any other alternatives besides implanting artificial heart valves?
Report this comment as inappropriate
Oct 8, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
My dad had this surgery in 1967 and died of unrelated causes in 2000. I could hear his valve clicking when it was quiet. So glad that we had him around for an additional 33 years!
Report this comment as inappropriate
Nov 12, 2011 @ 4:16 pm
I recently was diagnosed with a bad heart valve. My weight and blood pressure is fine at the moment. I am 60 years of age and follow a minimum of two one hour exercise sessions per week. I follow a strict diet and my cholestral is good.My cardiologist has scheduled another stress test in 6 months. At this time he said valve replacement in four or five years would be neccessary. Is there anything I can do to strengthen my heart valve to avoid this surgery.
Ruth Steele
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jun 27, 2012 @ 6:06 am
My Aunt died yesterday 26th June 2012, she was 92 - she was fitted with a Starr-Edwards valve in April 1973 and led a more or less normal life for just over 39 years.

Thanks to the inventers, I had my Aunty for an extra 39 years.
william wells
Report this comment as inappropriate
Apr 3, 2014 @ 7:07 am
my husband had heart value replacement last year,and was doing well. had echogram and it shows low blood flow. what does this mean? cannot get report from dr. as to why the low blood flow. thanks

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA


Artificial Heart Valve forum