Artificial blood vessels



Artificial blood vessels are tubes made from synthetic (chemically produced) materials to restore blood circulation. During World War I (1914-1918) French-American surgeon Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) perfected a procedure for sewing the ends of blood vessels together. This achievement that won him the 1912 Nobel Prize in medicine. Carrel also made artificial blood vessels with tubes of glass and aluminum.

The most successful artificial blood vessels in use today come from surgical techniques developed in the 1940s and 1950s. To replace damaged or diseased arteries or veins, surgeons initially transplanted arteries or veins from donors, but these transplants frequently failed. In some cases the donor arteries were rejected by the recipient, while in other cases the vessels developed arteriosclerosis ("hardening of the arteries"). Transplanting vessels from the patient's own body was problematic because two surgeries were required, one to harvest the needed vessel and a second to tranplant it. Furthermore, many patients with circulation problems had no suitable vessels that could be transplanted.

To overcome these problems, researchers began to experiment with synthetic blood vessel materials such as polyethylene (a soft and waxy plastic) and siliconized rubber (rubber formed with silicone). These synthetic fabrics showed the most promise.

Synthetic Materials Outperform Natural Ones

A porous material called vinyon, which had been tried on dogs, was first used by A. B. Voorhees on humans in 1953. A variety of synthetic fabrics were subsequently used in experiments; of these, the plastic Teflon and synthetic fiber Dacron proved to work best. Blood vessels made from these synthetics are not rejected by the body's immune system, and the materials are easily available and extremely durable.

While large Dacron blood vessels work very well, small ones have a tendency to become blocked by clots. Researchers are working on ways to make the interior walls of these small synthetic vessels smoother, thus preventing clot formation.

Hybrid Vessels

In the early 1980s chemist Donald Lyman of the University of Utah (Salt Lake City) synthesized a polymer (a plastic formed by long chains of carbon molecules) that had two advantages. Due to a high attraction for albumin (the protein in blood serum), Lyman's polymer reduced clot formation. The polymer also exhibited more elasticity (stretchiness), thereby reducing strain at the site where the natural and artificial vessels were surgically joined. Research Industries of Salt Lake City began testing Lyman's vessels on humans in 1988.

Surgeon David Annis of the University of Liverpool (England) produced a similar flexible, smooth-walled plastic vessel and also began human trials in the late 1980s. In 1990 Organogenesis (a bio-research company) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, began animal testing of its living blood vessel equivalent, which is a hybrid (specialized combination) of natural and artificial materials. This artificial vessel features a smooth inner layer grown in the laboratory from human cadaver (dead body) artery cells and tubules strengthened with Dacron mesh. Another approach worked out by Stuart Williams at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, uses cells from the patient's own inner blood vessel lining to grow a lining on the inside of Dacron synthetic vessels.



User Contributions:

burcu akdede
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Mar 7, 2006 @ 10:10 am
I am a student in Textile Engineer in Ege University.I'm searching about the vertificial blood vessel.Vertifical blood vessels are the one part of the technical textiles.I need your help...
shamil
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Feb 21, 2007 @ 1:01 am
I AM WORKING ON A RESEAECH . I WANT TO KNOW THE LATEST DEVELOPMENTS OF THE ARTIFICIAL BLOOD VESSLE ?. HOW LONG WILL THE SURGERY TAKE ? THE SUCESS RATE OF A SURGERY ? THE COST OF THE ARTIFICIAL BLOOD VESSCLE ? ECT.
LAWRANCE VANNAN
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Jan 21, 2008 @ 2:02 am
i am lawrance studying polymer technology from ICT chennai i am doing project on polymeric blood vessel. i want the manufacturing process and properties details about artificial blood vessel made from a ploymer.
lawrance vannan
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Feb 11, 2008 @ 8:08 am
i want the manufacturing process details fo polymeric blood vessel.
Putu
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Apr 14, 2008 @ 9:09 am
I'm doing a project regarding manufacturing artificial artery. Could you give me the manufacturing process details please? Thanks a lot
Sergio
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Feb 23, 2009 @ 8:08 am
I'am working on PTCA Phantom. Is there someone that can give me the mechanical characteristics of a mock artery (coronary) as elastic modulus, density etc.? Thank you very much
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May 19, 2010 @ 10:10 am
hi, i am a textile engineering student in Gaziantep University. i have a project its about artifical blood vessel made from nanofiber. could you help me about this topic.
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Sep 2, 2010 @ 10:10 am
What is the cost of plastic blood?And where do we get this blood in india.
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Mar 5, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
Hi am Tina,i need an information on artificial blood and different name for it. Please this is my Project and i need ur help.
kishanpal
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Jul 17, 2011 @ 11:11 am
Can we synthesise WBC wth any advancd technique? iam a research schlor in punjabi university in chemistry department ..
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Aug 27, 2011 @ 5:05 am
What features do the ideal artificial blood would need?
Eileen
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Dec 11, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
I am interested in the percentage of failures using sythetic veins in leg bypass
Michele Love
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Dec 15, 2012 @ 9:09 am
I have limphodima from surgery. My leg swells a lot. Are you any closer to being able to connect the veins that have been cut so that I will have better circulation in my leg and will it be affordable.
Thank you
alireza_alirezayi
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Oct 6, 2013 @ 11:11 am
hi i need an information about artificial blood for my projet .thx alot
Ismael Velazquez
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Mar 27, 2014 @ 8:08 am
are these artificial veins being used on humans to date 3/27/2014?
Janice Bazar
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Jun 6, 2014 @ 9:09 am
ARE THESE ARTIFICIAL BLOOD VESSEL HAS EXPIRY OR LIFETIME INSIDE HUMAN BODY?
moira vanderveken
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Mar 22, 2015 @ 12:12 pm
PLEASE INFORM ME THE COST OF SYNTHETIC VEINS.

BY INCHES OR FEET TO GET AN OVERALL IDEA OF THE GENERAL COST
patrick murphy
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Jul 15, 2015 @ 7:07 am
I have not been approved for a kidney transplant because my arteries are hardened ( as seen on MRI) - the hospital where I am a patient has stated that there can not be a process/surgery to use artificial (Dacron or other polymer) veins and arteries? Could you please advise me on your knowledge of a hospital where these artificial arteries have been installed in a patient like myself to then accommodate a transplanted kidney?? Which hospitals would perform such artificial artery and kidney transplant ?
Ryszard
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Dec 15, 2017 @ 3:03 am
What concerns the coronary heart system, is it possible to compare the profits in action of the artificai blood vessels and stents?
gary fox
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Apr 5, 2018 @ 1:01 am
I have a femoral popliteal artery Graff of 11 inches placed November 20th 1974. At this time that makes the Graff about 44 years old.
I do brisk walking of two miles four times a week with no pain, so it is still working pretty good. What would be my options if it were
to occlude, or not carry enough blood to my feet or the rest of my leg. Is Angioplasty an option for opening up a Dacron Graff?
rajashekar
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Oct 8, 2018 @ 1:01 am
i need a sample of blood vessel where can i purchase it

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